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 EYE COLOURS AND THIER CHARACTERISTICS

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PostSubject: EYE COLOURS AND THIER CHARACTERISTICS   Fri Jun 11, 2010 9:03 pm

Eye color is a polygenic phenotype character
and is determined by the amount and type of pigments
in the eye's
iris.
Humans and animals have many phenotypic variations in eye color, as
blue, brown, green and
others. These variations constitute phenotype
traits
.



Genetic determination of eye color


Eye
colors can range from the most common color, brown, to the least common,
green.
Eye color is an inherited trait influenced by more than one gene. These
genes are
being sought using associations to small changes in the genes themselves
and in
neighboring genes. These changes are known as single nucleotide polymorphisms
or SNPs. The actual number of genes that contribute to eye color is
currently
unknown, but there are a few likely candidates.



Blue
eyes with a brown spot, green eyes and gray eyes are caused by an
entirely
different part of the genome.



Classification of colors


Iris
color can provide a large amount of information about an individual, and
a
classification of various colors may be useful in documenting
pathological
changes or determining how a person may respond to various ocular
pharmaceuticals.
Various classification systems have ranged from a basic light or dark
description to detailed gradings employing photographic standards for
comparison.
Others have attempted to set objective standards of color comparison.



Eye color chart (Martin-Schultz scale)


Carleton Coon
created this chart by the Martin-Schultz scale often used in physical anthropology.



  1. Light eyes



Eyes light and light mixed
are 16-12 in Martin
scale.



Light


Gray, blue,
green.



Light-mixed


    1. Very
      light-mixed (blue with gray or green or green with gray)

    2. Light-mixed
      (light or very light-mixed with small admixture of brown pigment)


  1. Mixed eyes



Mixed


12-6 in Martin
scale. Mixture of light eyes (blue, gray or green) with brown pigment
when
light and brown pigment are the same level.



  1. Dark eyes



Dark-mixed


6-4 in Martin
scale. Brown with small admixture of light pigment.



Dark


4-1 in Martin
scale. Brown (light brown and dark brown) and very dark brown (almost
black).



Amber (Untruthful , selfish type)
[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]









Amber
iris

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Human
female with an amber iris





[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]








Human
amber eyes displaying the yellow pigments.



Amber
eyes are of a solid color and have a strong yellowish/golden and
russet/coppery
tint. This might be due to the deposition of the yellow pigment called lipochrome
in the iris (which is also found in green eyes).
Amber eyes should not be confused with hazel eyes; although hazel eyes
may
contain specks of amber or gold, they usually tend to comprise many
other
colors, including green, brown and orange. Also, hazel eyes may appear
to shift
in color and consist of flecks and ripples, while amber eyes are of a
solid
gold hue.



Blue ( Extremely Passionate people)








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A
blue iris



Blue
eyes contain low amounts of melanin within the iris stroma; longer
wavelengths
of light tend to be absorbed by the underlying iris pigment epithelium,
and
shorter wavelengths are reflected and undergo Rayleigh scattering.



Distribution
of light-eyed (blue, green, gray) persons in Europe



Blue
eyes are most common in Northern Europe and Central
Europe
and to a lesser degree in Southern
Europe
(through migration of Northen European and Central
European
settlers) and southern
Central Asia
; Afghanistan
is a notable example.
They are also found in parts of North Africa,
West Asia,
and South Asia
in particular the northern areas of India and Pakistan.



Brown (Move around themselves)


"Brown
eyes" redirects here. For other uses, see.







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Brown
iris







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Light
brown iris



Brown
eyes are dominant in humans and in
many parts of the world; it is nearly the only iris color present.
It is less common in countries around the Baltic Sea
and in Scandinavia.
Dark pigment of brown eyes are most common in East Asia,
Southeast
Asia
, Oceania,
Africa,
South America
and the Middle
East
.



Gray (Optimistic People)






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A
steel blue-gray iris




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Gray
iris under magnification, exhibiting small amounts of yellow



Gray
eyes are most common in European Russia, Sweden, Finland and the Baltic States.
It can also be found to a lesser extent in parts of India. Under
magnification, gray eyes exhibit small amounts of yellow and brown color
in the
iris. Visually, gray eyes often tend to appear to change between the
shades of
blue, green and gray; this is because gray eyes are, as already
mentioned,
extremely light.



Green ( Bewafa log
hoty
hain, not sincere)








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A light green iris with small amounts of brown





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Olive green eyes


Green
eyes are the product of low to moderate amounts of melanin and probably
represent the interaction of multiple variants within the OCA2 and
other genes.
Green eyes are most common in Northern and Central Europe. They can also
be
found in parts of Southern Europe (through migration of
Northen European and Central European settlers), South Asia,
West Asia,
and North Africa.
In Iceland,
89% of women and 87% of men have either blue or green eye color.



Hazel (With Lot of Attitude)






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Hazel
eyes are due to a combination of Rayleigh scattering and a moderate amount
of melanin in the iris's anterior border layer. Hazel eyes often appear
to
shift in color from a light brown to a dark golden-green.



Red ( Anger, and Aggressions)








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"Red"
albino eyes



The
eyes of people with severe forms of albinism
may appear red under certain lighting conditions owing to the extremely
low
quantities of melanin,
allowing the blood vessels to show through. In addition, flash photography
can sometimes cause a
"red-eye effect",
in which the very bright
light from the flash reflects off the back of the eyeball, which is
abundantly
vascular, causing the iris to appear red in the photograph


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